27 Aug

Medical News Today: Soluble corn fiber may improve women's bone health

According to new research from Purdue University in West Lafayette, IN, daily soluble corn fiber supplementation significantly helps build and retain calcium in bone for women in their teens and postmenopause.
[Female skeleton]
Adolescent and postmenopausal females can benefit significantly in bone health from supplementing with soluble corn fiber, study finds.

Soluble corn fiber (SCF) is a nondigestible carbohydrate used in foods and beverages such as cereals, baked goods, candy, dairy products, frozen foods, carbonated beverages, and flavored water.

SCF helps create packaged food products that have lower sugar contents, while providing a valuable source of dietary fiber.

Evidence suggests that SCF has many of the same health benefits associated with intact dietary fiber found in grains, vegetables, legumes, and fruit. SCF may improve intestinal regularity and has prebiotic properties. Moreover, SCF supports healthy blood glucose control and supports bone health by increasing calcium absorption.

The daily recommended fiber intake for adults in the United States is 25 grams for women and 38 grams for men. However, most Americans consume around half of the recommended amount. Fiber-enriched foods help bridge the shortage of fiber in the diet without significantly increasing calorie content.

In the new research, the team aimed to evaluate how the dose of SCF affected calcium absorption, bone properties, and gut microbiome in adolescent and postmenopausal women.

“We are looking deeper in the gut to build healthy bone in girls and help older women retain strong bones during an age when they are susceptible to fractures,” says Connie Weaver, distinguished professor and head of nutrition science.

“Soluble corn fiber, a prebiotic, helps the body better utilize calcium during both adolescence and postmenopause. The gut microbiome is the new frontier in health,” she adds.

Tate & Lyle Ingredients America LLC funded the research, and they produce Promitor Dietary Fiber, which is a soluble prebiotic fiber made from corn that is labeled as “soluble corn fiber” or “maltodextrin” on the packaging.

Findings from the study on postmenopausal women were published in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, while the findings on adolescent women were published in Journal of Nutrition.

Weaver and colleagues found that after prebiotic fiber passes through the gut for the microbes in the lower gut to digest, the SCF is broken down into short-chain fatty acids, which assist in the maintenance bone health.

Supplementation helped build and preserve bone

In the postmenopausal study, 14 healthy postmenopausal women consumed 0 grams, 10 grams, or 20 grams of SCF every day for 50 days. The women in the groups that received 10 grams and 20 grams – amounts that are found in supplement form – displayed bone calcium retention improvement by 4.8 percent and 7 percent, respectively.

“If projected out for a year, this would equal and counter the average rate of bone loss in a post-menopausal woman,” says Weaver, an expert in mineral bioavailability, calcium metabolism, botanicals and bone health.

In the adolescent study, 28 girls aged between 11-14 years old consumed either 0 grams, 10 grams, or 20 grams of SCF every day for 4 weeks, while maintaining their regular diet. The females in both the 10 gram and 20 gram SCF groups saw an increase in calcium absorption by around 12 percent, which would build 1.8 percent more skeleton per year.

Gastrointestinal symptoms were minimal in both studies and the same was seen in the control groups.

“Most studies looking at benefits from soluble corn fiber are trying to solve digestion problems, and we are the first to determine that this relationship of feeding certain kind of fiber can alter the gut microbiome in ways that can enhance health,” Weaver said. “We found this prebiotic can help healthy people use minerals better to support bone health.”

Few people meet the daily recommended intake of 1,200 milligrams of calcium for healthy bone mass.

Weaver says that while SCF can help people better utilize calcium for bone health, this finding does not mean the recommendation to drink milk and follow a well-balanced diet should be ignored. SCF can, however, help individuals that are not consuming the whole recommended amount of dairy.

“Calcium alone suppresses bone loss, but it doesn’t enhance bone formation. These fibers enhance bone formation, so they are doing something more than enhancing calcium absorption.”

Connie Weaver

Further studies by the team will examine the mechanisms behind how SCF boosts calcium absorption and retention, and if the prebiotic fiber benefits the body in other ways.

Read about how a diet high in fiber alters bacteria to protect against food allergies.

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Source: medicalnewstoday

27 Aug

Medical News Today: Peritonitis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Peritonitis is a problem with the peritoneum, a moist tissue around the inside of the belly wall. Usually, the reaction is due to it becoming infected by microbes such as bacteria.

Peritonitis is a serious and urgent problem that doctors need to treat as soon as possible. Symptoms that could mean peritonitis include sudden, severe belly pain.

Infection is often caused by a rupture, or “perforation.” One example of this is when appendicitis develops into a ruptured appendix. When this happens, pus from the infection bursts from the gut into the peritoneum.

Symptoms of peritonitis

Peritonitis is a serious problem that needs urgent medical attention in a nearby emergency room or by calling an ambulance. Patients who develop peritonitis while already in the hospital need attending to urgently.

Sudden, severe stomach pain that gets worse is the main symptom of peritonitis.

A doctor comforts a woman with stomach pain.
The main symptom of peritonitis is severe stomach pain.

Symptoms of infection or inflammation because of peritonitis include the following. Some are related to serious effects in the body such as dehydration and shock caused by peritonitis:

  • Fever – a high temperature of more than 100.4°F (38°C)
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Loss of interest in food
  • Not passing much urine
  • Fast heart rate
  • Unable to pass stool or gas

Whether these symptoms turn out to be from peritonitis or something else, it is important to get medical help.

The first thing doctors will want to do with such symptoms is to rule out, or treat, anything potentially life-threatening like peritonitis.

Swollen belly from peritonitis

A swollen belly can also be a symptom of peritonitis. When a rupture is the cause of peritonitis, fluid moves to the belly cavity and the bowel. This results in loss of fluid from the rest of the body. This is what causes the worst dehydration effects of peritonitis.

When liver disease is behind peritonitis, a swollen belly occurs for a different reason.

Here, the fluid swelling in the belly is caused by liver disease that has become infected. This is usually without the perforation that is seen in other types of peritonitis. This is known spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

This form of peritonitis has different symptoms. The symptoms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis are mostly discomfort, caused by the pressure of the increased fluid. For people with liver disease whose swollen bellies get infected, the pain is mild to moderate, not severe.

Complications from peritonitis

If peritonitis is not diagnosed quickly, lack of treatment can lead to more dangerous conditions such as sepsis and septic shock. This is why peritonitis is a medical emergency – it can quickly become life-threatening.

What is the peritoneum?

Picture of the digestive system.
The peritoneum holds the insides of the belly in place.

The abdominal cavity contains the main parts of the gut such as the stomach and intestines and other organs such as the liver and kidneys.

The peritoneum lines the belly or abdominal wall, but also forms a number of folds that go inward. By folding in, the peritoneum weaves between abdominal organs and gives them a covering membrane.

In this way, the peritoneum holds the insides of the belly in their places.

The folds of the peritoneum also contain blood and nerve supplies. These vessels can be seen running through the curtain of membrane holding together the intestines.

Causes of peritonitis

Most cases of peritonitis are caused by infections. In rare cases, these can be in the peritoneum itself. Most commonly, infections come from another source.

A rupture in the gut is often the source of an infection. Ruptures can come from a burst appendix, or from a hole created by a severe stomach ulcer, among other causes.

People on a type of kidney dialysis that involves filling the peritoneum with fluid and exchanging this can also get an infection from outside the body.

Other possible causes include:

  • Inflammation of the pancreas
  • Inflammation of the gut through conditions such as Crohn’s disease
  • Diverticulitis – inflammation of pouches in the large bowel wall
  • Injuries that cause trauma to the belly, such as knife or gun wounds

Peritonitis can happen to people who have excess fluid in their bellies because of long-standing disease, liver disease especially. This is one of the less common causes.

While it is uncommon, the peritoneum can also be affected by cancer.

Diagnosis of peritonitis

Anyone with symptoms that might be due to peritonitis should see a doctor as soon as possible. Peritonitis is serious, but the symptoms are also important to manage whatever their cause.

The first step with diagnosis is for doctors to ask questions. This helps them narrow down the exact type, timing, and location of symptoms.

Sometimes, the signs of peritonitis are more obvious to doctors. A patient having peritoneal dialysis for kidney disease, for example, will be at risk of infection brought through the belly wall. The dialysis will be monitored for how the exchanged fluid looks. Doctors may diagnose and treat peritonitis straight away if this fluid is cloudy.

For any suspected peritonitis, doctors check the signs by doing a physical examination, looking at the belly in particular.

Further investigations are made to check for infection or locate the source of the problem. These tests might include:

  • Blood samples to confirm immune reaction – shown by a high white blood cell count
  • Blood samples to test for wider bacterial complication
  • X-ray or ultrasound – to locate a hole in the gut, for example
  • CT imaging can provide a more detailed computer picture from X-rays
  • Paracentesis – taking fluid from the abdomen to check for infection directly

Paracentesis – drawing peritoneal fluid

Fluid around the peritoneum may be drawn from the belly and tested for signs of inflammation and infection. This is called paracentesis.

Excess fluid in the belly fills the spaces between the folds of the peritoneum membrane. This means it fills the abdominal cavity between the organs. Doctors call this condition ascites. The fluid is called ascitic fluid.

Testing includes sending off the sample for white cell counts and chemical analysis. The lab can also look for bacteria and other microbes under the microscope, or by using stains and cultures.

Not all cases are suitable for the paracentesis test. When it is done, a thin needle is inserted into the belly skin and through the abdominal wall. Preparation is done to ensure that:

  • There is no added pain, by using local anesthetic
  • The procedure is sterile, to reduce the risk that infection is introduced or spread

Having fluid in the belly may be the reason for being seen in the hospital in the first place. This fluid is more likely for people who have liver disease, and many can get peritonitis.

According to a paper given at the 2010 annual scientific meeting of the American College of Gastroenterologists, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is found in some 20 percent of people admitted to hospital with ascites because of liver cirrhosis.

Treatment for peritonitis

A stomach jigsaw puzzle.
If there is a hole in the gut, doctors will need to perform surgery.

Peritonitis needs hospital treatment, where doctors:

  • Use antibiotics to tackle infection: These can be given directly into the blood using intravenous injection. These are broad-spectrum antibiotics – doctors start these promptly, not waiting for tests of bacterial infections. Doctors may use more specific drugs later.
  • Perform surgery: Surgery is used in cases where the cause is, for example, a hole in the gut. An operation may also be needed to remove badly affected peritoneal tissue.
  • Use wider support therapies: ranging from intensive life support to help for keeping nutrition.

Prevention of peritonitis

Peritonitis is not always preventable, and it can happen without warning. However, some cases are preventable.

Good hygiene practices in hospitals are important. This is especially true for those people with kidney disease who have the peritoneal form of dialysis where infections could be introduced into the belly.

Quick action is also preventive. People should call for medical help if very severe stomach pain comes on.

If a gut perforation is the cause, acting quickly could prevent peritonitis from developing. Quick treatment is important in any case.

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Source: medicalnewstoday

27 Aug

Medical News Today: Coffee intake depends on gene variation, study suggests

How many cups of coffee do you drink a day? According to a new study, the answer might depend on your DNA. Researchers suggest people with a DNA variation in the gene PDSS2 drink fewer cups of coffee than those without this variation.
[A cup of coffee]
Drinking less coffee may be down to a genetic variant, researchers suggest.

Study co-author Dr. Nicola Pirastu, from the Usher Institute at the University of Edinburgh in the United Kingdom, and colleagues publish their findings in the journal Scientific Reports.

It goes without saying that the U.S. is a nation of coffee drinkers; more than half of Americans drink coffee daily, consuming an average of three cups a day.

But while some people are happy with a never-ending supply of the hot stuff, others are content with a single cup of coffee to wake them up in the morning.

Previous research has suggested these disparities in coffee consumption may be down to differences in the way a person’s body responds to caffeine – the main stimulant in coffee – but precisely what is behind these differences has been unclear.

Some studies have suggested certain genes may play a role; a 2014 study published in the journal Molecular Psychiatry, for example, identified a number of genetic variants associated with caffeine metabolism.

Now, Dr. Pirastu and colleagues say they have identified another genetic variant that may explain why some people drink less coffee than others.

One less cup of coffee daily with PDSS2 DNA variation

To reach their findings, the team analyzed the genetic data of 1,213 people from Italy. Of these, 843 were from six villages across north-east Italy, while 370 were from a small village in south Italy.

All participants completed a survey that disclosed how many cups of coffee they drank each day.

The team found that coffee consumption was lower for subjects who had a DNA variation in the PDSS2 gene; they drank an average of one less cup of coffee daily, compared with those who did not have the PDSS2 DNA variation.

In a further study of 1,731 individuals from the Netherlands, the researchers were able to replicate their findings, though they note that the effect of this gene variant on reduction of coffee consumption was not as strong.

The team speculates that this might be due to differences in coffee drinking styles between the two populations; people from Italy tend to consume smaller cups of coffee, such as espresso, while individuals from the Netherlands are more likely to drink larger cups of coffee that contain more caffeine.

Explaining the possible mechanisms behind their findings, the researchers suggest that the DNA variation in the PDSS2 gene lowers cells’ ability to break down caffeine following coffee consumption, prolonging the amount of time the stimulant remains in the body.

As a result, individuals with this genetic variant do not need to drink as much coffee in order to get the same caffeine hit as those without the variant.

“The results of our study add to existing research suggesting that our drive to drink coffee may be embedded in our genes. We need to do larger studies to confirm the discovery and also to clarify the biological link between PDSS2 and coffee consumption.”

Dr. Nicola Pirastu

The authors note that Italian coffee company Illy took part in the study, but they did not provide any funding.

Read about how coffee could prevent exercise-induced eye fatigue.

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Source: medicalnewstoday

27 Aug

Health Tip: Keeping Foods Separate During Grilling

Latest Nutrition, Food & Recipes News

(HealthDay News) — It’s important to prevent cross-contamination of food while grilling.

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics advises:

  • Make sure your grill is clean before you begin. Remove any leftover food particles.
  • Don’t put cooked food back on the same plate that held raw food. Wash with hot soapy water first, or use a different plate.
  • Use separate grilling utensils to turn food once it’s cooked, or thoroughly clean utensils after handling raw food.
  • Never use marinade that contained raw meat to baste cooked meat.

— Diana Kohnle

MedicalNews
Copyright © 2016 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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Source: MediciNet

27 Aug

Health Tip: Make Sure Kids' Shoes Fit Well

Latest Healthy Kids News

(HealthDay News) — Kids need sturdy, supportive shoes that fit their growing feet.

Here are some shoe-shopping suggestions from the American Podiatric Medical Association:

  • Every few months, your child will probably outgrow shoes and socks.
  • Poorly-fitted shoes can irritate your child’s feet. Measure feet at each shopping trip, and inspect feet often for signs of irritation.
  • Don’t let your child wear secondhand shoes. They may not fit correctly, and may spread fungal infections.
  • Check the heels of your child’s shoes for uneven wear.
  • Let your child shop for shoes and help decide which to buy. Buy the size that fits the larger foot.
  • Have your child try on shoes with a favorite pair of socks. Make sure the shoes are comfortable right away.

— Diana Kohnle

MedicalNews
Copyright © 2016 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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Source: MediciNet

27 Aug

Many Teens 'Vaping' for Flavor, Not Nicotine

News Picture: Many Teens 'Vaping' for Flavor, Not Nicotine

Latest Lungs News

THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Why are American teens tempted to try an e-cigarette? A new study suggests most are interested in the vaping product’s flavoring, not nicotine.

A team led by Richard Miech, of the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research, tracked the responses of nearly 15,000 students who took part in a 2015 U.S. nationwide survey.

More than 3,800 of the students — who were in grades 8, 10 and 12 — said they had used e-cigarettes at some point.

Of those who had used e-cigarettes within the past month, more than 1,700 had done so at least once; nearly 1,100 had done so up to five times; and more than 600 had done so more than half a dozen times, the findings showed.

Among the students who had ever used e-cigarettes, two-thirds used the device where a non-nicotine, flavored ingredient was used, the survey found.

Nicotine came in at a distant second: Used by 13 percent of 8th graders, 20 percent of 10th graders, and 22 percent of 12th graders.

Relatively few of the students tried vaping marijuana — just 6 percent to 7 percent of all students, the study found.

The findings suggest that efforts to reduce e-cigarette use among young people may fail if they focus on the dangers of nicotine because most teen users do not believe they are using nicotine, according to the researchers.

“These results indicate that while taking into account [e-cigarette] use does indeed increase tobacco/nicotine prevalence, the impact of [e-cigarettes] is likely not as large as might appear by their recent, dramatic increase in use among adolescents,” Miech and colleagues wrote.

But one expert in vaping and smoking questioned the findings.

“Although I appreciate the survey results, I question whether the adolescents actually knew for certain that what they were inhaling did or did not contain nicotine,” said Patricia Folan. She directs the Center for Tobacco Control at Northwell Health in Great Neck, N.Y.

“There are nearly 500 types of vaping devices and currently the ingredients in these devices are not always known nor do they appear on the product labels,” she said. “Consequently, I would have thought that there would be more teens reporting that they did not know what substances they were vaping.”

Folan also believes that there’s no “harmless” e-cigarette.

“Even without nicotine, inhaled products that contain flavorings can be damaging to the lung tissue and would not be considered safe for adolescents or adults,” she said.

The study was published online Aug. 25 in the journal Tobacco Control.

— Robert Preidt

MedicalNews
Copyright © 2016 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

SOURCES: Patricia Folan, D.N.P., director, Center for Tobacco Control, Northwell Health, Great Neck, N.Y.; Tobacco Control, news release, Aug. 25, 2016

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Source: MediciNet

27 Aug

Health Tip: Keeping Foods Separate During Grilling

Latest Nutrition, Food & Recipes News

(HealthDay News) — It’s important to prevent cross-contamination of food while grilling.

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics advises:

  • Make sure your grill is clean before you begin. Remove any leftover food particles.
  • Don’t put cooked food back on the same plate that held raw food. Wash with hot soapy water first, or use a different plate.
  • Use separate grilling utensils to turn food once it’s cooked, or thoroughly clean utensils after handling raw food.
  • Never use marinade that contained raw meat to baste cooked meat.

— Diana Kohnle

MedicalNews
Copyright © 2016 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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Source: MediciNet

27 Aug

Health Tip: Make Sure Kids' Shoes Fit Well

Latest Healthy Kids News

(HealthDay News) — Kids need sturdy, supportive shoes that fit their growing feet.

Here are some shoe-shopping suggestions from the American Podiatric Medical Association:

  • Every few months, your child will probably outgrow shoes and socks.
  • Poorly-fitted shoes can irritate your child’s feet. Measure feet at each shopping trip, and inspect feet often for signs of irritation.
  • Don’t let your child wear secondhand shoes. They may not fit correctly, and may spread fungal infections.
  • Check the heels of your child’s shoes for uneven wear.
  • Let your child shop for shoes and help decide which to buy. Buy the size that fits the larger foot.
  • Have your child try on shoes with a favorite pair of socks. Make sure the shoes are comfortable right away.

— Diana Kohnle

MedicalNews
Copyright © 2016 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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Source: MediciNet

27 Aug

Many Teens 'Vaping' for Flavor, Not Nicotine

News Picture: Many Teens 'Vaping' for Flavor, Not Nicotine

Latest Lungs News

THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Why are American teens tempted to try an e-cigarette? A new study suggests most are interested in the vaping product’s flavoring, not nicotine.

A team led by Richard Miech, of the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research, tracked the responses of nearly 15,000 students who took part in a 2015 U.S. nationwide survey.

More than 3,800 of the students — who were in grades 8, 10 and 12 — said they had used e-cigarettes at some point.

Of those who had used e-cigarettes within the past month, more than 1,700 had done so at least once; nearly 1,100 had done so up to five times; and more than 600 had done so more than half a dozen times, the findings showed.

Among the students who had ever used e-cigarettes, two-thirds used the device where a non-nicotine, flavored ingredient was used, the survey found.

Nicotine came in at a distant second: Used by 13 percent of 8th graders, 20 percent of 10th graders, and 22 percent of 12th graders.

Relatively few of the students tried vaping marijuana — just 6 percent to 7 percent of all students, the study found.

The findings suggest that efforts to reduce e-cigarette use among young people may fail if they focus on the dangers of nicotine because most teen users do not believe they are using nicotine, according to the researchers.

“These results indicate that while taking into account [e-cigarette] use does indeed increase tobacco/nicotine prevalence, the impact of [e-cigarettes] is likely not as large as might appear by their recent, dramatic increase in use among adolescents,” Miech and colleagues wrote.

But one expert in vaping and smoking questioned the findings.

“Although I appreciate the survey results, I question whether the adolescents actually knew for certain that what they were inhaling did or did not contain nicotine,” said Patricia Folan. She directs the Center for Tobacco Control at Northwell Health in Great Neck, N.Y.

“There are nearly 500 types of vaping devices and currently the ingredients in these devices are not always known nor do they appear on the product labels,” she said. “Consequently, I would have thought that there would be more teens reporting that they did not know what substances they were vaping.”

Folan also believes that there’s no “harmless” e-cigarette.

“Even without nicotine, inhaled products that contain flavorings can be damaging to the lung tissue and would not be considered safe for adolescents or adults,” she said.

The study was published online Aug. 25 in the journal Tobacco Control.

— Robert Preidt

MedicalNews
Copyright © 2016 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

SOURCES: Patricia Folan, D.N.P., director, Center for Tobacco Control, Northwell Health, Great Neck, N.Y.; Tobacco Control, news release, Aug. 25, 2016

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Source: MediciNet

27 Aug

Health Tip: Keeping Foods Separate During Grilling

Latest Nutrition, Food & Recipes News

iv>

(HealthDay News) — It’s important to prevent cross-contamination of food while grilling.

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics advises:

  • Make sure your grill is clean before you begin. Remove any leftover food particles.
  • Don’t put cooked food back on the same plate that held raw food. Wash with hot soapy water first, or use a different plate.
  • Use separate grilling utensils to turn food once it’s cooked, or thoroughly clean utensils after handling raw food.
  • Never use marinade that contained raw meat to baste cooked meat.

— Diana Kohnle

MedicalNews
Copyright © 2016 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Let’s block ads! (Why?)


Source: MediciNet